LIVING ALOFT: Human Requirements for Extended Spaceflight (NASA History Series)

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Maurice, B. Barraclough, K. Fuller, and R.

Landmark NASA Twins Study Reveals Space Travel's Effects on the Human Body

Lawrence, R. Elphic, B.

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Barraclough, S. Maurice, I. Genetay, and A. Binder, Polar hydrogen deposits on the Moon, J. Lawrence, W. Feldman, B. Barraclough, R.

The human experience in antarctica: Applications to life in space

Elphic, T. Prettyman, S. Maurice, A. Binder, and M. Miller, Thorium abundances on the lunar surface, J. Elphic, D.

The Riskiest Maneuver in the History of the Space Program

Binder, and P. Gasnault, C. Feldman and S. Maurice, Lunar fast neutron leakage flux calculation and its elemental abundance dependence, J. Of course, prospective space travelers will also have to contend with longer-lasting effects, which the researchers found — lingering DNA damage due to the radiation exposure, for one. Changes due to long-term shifts in fluids, because of microgravity, also led to a thickening of the carotid arteries that deliver blood to the brain, which can be a marker for heart disease.

Introduction | SpringerLink

That same fluid shift caused changes in eye shape and other issues that hurt Scott's vision. The researchers are also tracking genes that are still showing differences in activation, such as some associated with DNA repair. Scott also showed a decrease in cognitive speed and accuracy six months after he returned to Earth, according to the paper. And there could be increased risk for heart disease and some cancers in the cells which ended up with shortened telomeres.


Many of these changes will be more significant for even longer flights, or ones that travel outside low Earth orbit. So the researchers hope to do more yearlong studies on more individuals, both in low Earth orbit, around the moon and someday farther out, to continue to track these changes. The researchers emphasized that technology has changed since Scott's mission; now, an astronaut has sequenced DNA in space , and a new technique has also come out to analyze epigenetics in flight, the researchers said.

All of these tools could enhance future studies. I wish every single person had a twin that was always doing something different and that we were always tracking them, but I don't think we would get IRB approval to copy everyone," Mason joked about his ideal research. From Scott's perspective as an astronaut, the study findings are promising, he told Space. Scott said that, based on his experience, he thinks the time scales needed for a journey to Mars would be doable for astronauts. But for even-longer-duration flights, some new technology may be necessary, he said. Email Sarah Lewin at slewin space.

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In the genes

Please review our Terms and Conditions of Use and check box below to share full-text version of article. Abstract The increasing prominence of polar, spaceflight, and subaquatic environments has renewed interest in understanding human performance under conditions of isolation and confinement.

Here's what happens on long-duration space missions.

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