El general Don Pedro Santana y la anexión de Santo Domingo a España (Spanish Edition)

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Authorities began investigating the group, which is linked to the Morocco-based Murabitum World Movement, after the September 11 terrorist attacks, Moctezuma Barragan said. Finding records that will extend genealogical research back into the early nineteenth century for Indian ancestors can be quite challenging. Most tribal enrollment records and censuses taken by the Bureau of Indian Affairs do not begin until around The earliest federal censuses that mention Indians are the , , and , and even these are sporadic.

The federal census is the first one available that has a more systematic listing of residents of Indian reservations. Other records such as various applications taken for enrollment purposes after the Land Allotment Act of are a primary source of family history, and they often list parents and grandparents on earlier rolls. But tracing back into the early s is very difficult because there are so few records containing kinship information and birth or death dates.

What could you do, for example, if you know that your great-great-grandmother's name was Mary, she was probably Creek, you have no idea what her parents' names were, and you think she must have been a young girl in the s? One possibility would be to search the bounty land warrant application files. An act of March 3, 10 Stat. A few earlier acts had specified bounty lands for Indians, but this act marked the first time land was made available on a large scale.

Applications for Indian Bounty Lands Applications were taken by Indian agents in the Indian Territory west of Arkansas in the years immediately following the act. The records are now a part of Record Group 15, Records of the Veterans Administration entry 27 of Preliminary Inventory NM, "Case files of bounty land warrant applications of Indians based on service between and ". They consist of forty-five boxes of envelopes, around a hundred per box.

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The envelopes are identified on the outside as "Bounty Land Files, Act of The applications have been arranged alphabetically by the name of the veteran. These names are primarily transcriptions of Indian names, such as In-to-yo-ye, Ish-tar-yi-see, or Soks-set-he-ne-ha. Whenever second names appear, the order is by the first name.

For example, Ne-har-locco Harjo is filed under N. Federal Census Records — Counties After separating the census records into groups by state, the federal government subdivided these records into county groups. Searching for an ancestor on the county level provides a smaller region for research if you remain uncertain about the specific township where your ancestor resided.

Researchers should also be aware of boundary line or jurisdictional changes through time. NARA microfilm publication Indian Census Rolls, rolls contains census rolls that were usually submitted each year by agents or superintendents in charge of Indian reservations, as required by an act of July 4, 23 Stat. Beginning in , the rolls also show the degree of Indian blood, marital status, ward status, place of residence, and sometimes other information.

For certain years--including , , , and only supplemental rolls of additions and deletions were compiled. Most of the rolls have been retained by the Bureau of Indian Affairs and are not included in this publication. There is not a census for every reservation or group of Indians for every year. Only persons who maintained a formal affiliation with a tribe under federal supervision are listed on these census rolls. Today, their names will be officially be changed to Alexander and Philip Pokanoket.

Philip would eventually be called "King Philip". The Spanish mentioned Chatot or Chacato Indians who lived in the area. At first the Chatot resisted Spanish influence, but later many converted and settled around the Spanish mission at San Luis, south of Tallahassee. They were driven away or captured as slaves during English raids between to It is said that the Chatot were related to the Choctaws.

See also Georgia, Alabama, and Louisiana. Villages: From the names of two Spanish missions among them it would appear that there were at least two towns in early times, one called Chacato, after the name of the tribe, and the other Tolentino. This, he says, "is an extraordinary thing, because the aforesaid Chacatos never maintained peace with anybody.

The disturbance was soon ended by the Spanish officer Florencia, and the Chatot presently settled near the Apalachee town of San Luis, mission work among them being resumed. In , or shortly before, Lower Creek Indians attacked this mission, plundered the church, and carried away 42 Christianized natives. In or , following on the destruction of the Apalachee towns, the Chatot and several other small tribes living near it were attacked and scattered or carried off captive, and the Chatot fled to Mobile, where they were well received by Bienville and located on the site of the present city of Mobile.

When Bienville afterward moved the seat of his government to this place he assigned to them land on Dog River by way of compensation. After Mobile was ceded to the English in the Chatot, along with a number of other small tribes near Hak City, moved to Louisiana. They appear to have settled first on Bayou Boeuf and later on Sabine River. Nothing is heard of them afterward though in some old Choctaw remembered their former presence on the Sabine.

The remnant may have found their way to Oklahoma. The fort, built by Mexico in on a bluff overlooking the mouth of the Trinity River, is considered by some historians the site where the first shots of the Texas Revolution were fired. The fortress, named after an ancient capital of the Aztecs, was used by Mexico to collect customs from cargo ships in the Galveston Bay area and enforce a new law curtailing further Anglo-American settlement in the area, records show. Seguin Memorial Interchange. Juan N. Seguin across Texas, and to inform the public at large about other Tejano heroes that have been forgotten in Texas history.

We feel that the name of Col. Seguin should be known as well as other Texas heroes like Gen. Austin, and James Bowie. He was ready to put his life on the line for freedom and victory over a tyrant. He fought for all Texans and we can thank him today for our ability to enjoy the freedom he fought for. Too often in our Texas history some names have been remembered, while others who fought as valiantly as those, have been ignored or forgotten.

Hopefully this site will be a teaching aid and learning tool for everyone to understand how the Tejano played a big part in Texas history. Over time, this list will be expanded to include ancestors and descendants of those settlers. If you are related to one or more members of the core group and have information about your ancestors, please share it with the Museum at jmurray bchm. Access an alphabetical index of the people, index of last names , or search for a specific name.

There is no charge to submit an event for this calendar. Events must benefit a non-profit organization. No late submissions will be posted. The purpose of this project is to bring the data from all 30 county indexes together into one alphabetical listing. Among places with 1, households or more, Cameron Park ranks dead last in the country in median per-capita income, at dollars 4, a year. Some 1, colonias, or shantytowns that developed without services like water or sewers, have emerged along the Texas-Mexico border.

They started in the late s and early s with landowners offering mostly poor Mexican immigrants land on easy terms. It has been against the law since to sell unimproved land for housing. A constitutional amendment passed last November authorized up to million dollars in state bonds to build or improve roads and drainage. And the U. Department of Housing and Urban Development news - web sites has offered low-cost financing to build homes. Services have improved, the new sidewalks means children can walk to the bus on rainy days without having to wrap garbage bags around their shoes.

Most of the homes have indoor plumbing. At a community center, families now are matched with food stamps and other public assistance programs. There are English classes, and a new computer center is under construction. People are staying and building homes. It's part of the mindset they brought with them from Mexico. Every effort was made to make an accurate transcription.

If you wish to check the accuracy of a surname, send an email and a check will be made. I will also email you a scanned copy of the original newspaper article for your records. Although Spanish surname passengers are few, scanning is quick and a family name may be found, such as the Francisco Emanuel de Rodrigues in the following ship record. Los Adaes Believed to be the site of the first Spanish settlement in Louisiana, the Spanish established the mission San Miguel of los Adaes in to spread Christianity to the Adaes Indians and to protect against the French in Natchitoches.

Although the French 5took the mission in , the Spanish returned in , and Los Adaes served as the capital of the Spanish province of Texas for many years. The threat of French Natchitoches was removed in , when Spain acquired Louisiana, so the capital was moved to San Antonio, and the town of Los Adaes was ordered to be destroyed. The database includes names of passengers and members of their traveling parties, age, gender, occupation, country or area of origin, ship name, dates of departure, original port of their departure, date of arrival, and destination in the United States as well as the source of the information listed.

In all, the names of , passengers from the period of roughly have been entered. There was a total of 83, pages of input with a total of 50, different last names. The largest single last name was Schmidt with people with that last name. There are about different ports of origin for the ships coming to Galveston. The largest single destination was Galveston with over 14, families , but more that 13, families do not list a destination. There was a total of almost 5, different destinations in the 83, families. There is a lot of information in the database , it just takes time and thought to evaluate what is there.

Sent by Johanna de Soto Genealogy for the Descendants of French Colonists of North America This site provides tidbits of information about colonists of New-France and their descendants from to , in the form of passenger lists, places of origin, activities, maps, military rolls, people who took part in some historical events,etc. The South had a booming economy during the 's and, as a result, the number of Mexicans coming into the state increased percent during that decade. North Carolina has welcomed Mexican immigrants with open arms, finding them to be diligent and dedicated workers.

The problem is that the state knew very little about Mexico and didn't know where to begin to help Mexicans integrate into the educational system. Few educators in the North Carolina school system speak Spanish and although they were happy to accept Mexican children into the public schools, they didn't quite know how to go about it. For the past several years, the Center has provided educators the opportunity to learn about Mexico by actually visiting the country for a two week period. They stay with host families, usually relatives of Mexicans who have made their home in North Carolina. They get to hear lectures about Mexican education which prepare them for actual school visits.

The teachers have the opportunity to meet with their Mexican counterparts and learn as much as they can about the educational system Mexican children in North Carolina were used to. For further information contact her at statland avantel. The basic objective will be to add to the database 77, individuals from the Guadalajara population censuses of , , , , and The entire database and documentation will be available in English and Spanish on Inter- university Consortium for Political and Social Research web site. Anderson at randerso mailer. In addition to the usual high school subjects taught in Cd.

There will be a computer for each student that attends the school and class periods will be longer than at other schools. Intensive English will also be part of the school's program. Students will not have to pay the usual registration fees and will receive all their school supplies for free. La Grandeza 4.


Balleza 6. Batopilas 7. El Mezqauital 9. Allende Ocampo Santiago Maravatio Ajuchitlan del Progreso General Canuto A. Neri Olinala Pedro Ascencio Alquisiras Atlapexco Nicolas Flores Pacula San Bartolo Tutotepec Atenguillo Cuquio Chapala Chimaltitan Huejucar Huejuquilla el Alto Jilotlan de los Dolores Manuel M. Diegues Mezquitic Aguililla Aquila Jiquilpan Nocupetaro Susupuato Tangancicuaro Tepalcatepec Tzitzio Agualeguas San Miguel Tlacotepec Santiago Juxtlahuaca Santiago Tilantongo Ajalpan Coatzingo Pional de Amoles Guadalcazar Moctezuma Agua Prieta Chicontepec Soteapan Tantoyuca Apulco Atolinga Trinidad Garcia de la Cadena General Joaquin Amaro Huanusco Juchipila Tepetongo T his is an example of just one of the holdings for an individual.

Not all include the chronology. The earliest date is Please send comments. Questions are welcomed. Send to the Benson Latin American Collection at: blac lib. In the body of your message, include your name, your e-mail address, and your post office address street, city, ZIP code, etc. The physical extent of the papers is eight inches.

The papers are in Spanish, and are also available on microfilm. Born in Lagos, Jalisco; died in Mexico City. Deputy to the national congress Comandante General for Chiapas Brigadier General and General de Division Governor of Tabasco Nov. Comandante General de Sinaloa and Sonora Involved with construction of a railroad from Mexico City to Veracruz Relieved of command December 27, , and became subject of investigation concerning his reduction of the customs tax.

Scope and Contents Note: Correspondence, printed materials, financial and legal documents, and literary productions concerning Anaya's military and political career. Papers of his wife, Mercedes Jaime de Aguirre, and daughter, Gila Anaya, include correspondence, financial, and legal documents, mostly relating to Anaya's military pension. Newspaper clippings concern the construction of the railroad from Mexico City to Veracruz. One subgroup was formed around Anaya and the other around his family. The subgroups were organized into series by document format.

The total extent of the papers is eight inches. Juan Pablo Anaya Correspondence , , 2. Printed material, , 2 folders plus oversized. Includes newspapers and clippings and broadsides and circulars Financial documents , , 1 folder. Consists of receipts and an undated list.

Literary Productions , and undated, 1 folder. Contains autobiographical material, reports, speeches, and research notes. Legal Documents , , 3 folders. Includes certificates , declarations and statements , and decrees and orders Sueldos y alcances, , 1 folder. Anaya Family Correspondence , , 1 folder. Printed Material , , 1 folder.

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Financial Documents , , 1 folder. Legal Documents , , 1 folder. Los principales lugares, aparte de la cabecera municipal habs. Su territorio comprende Antonio Rocha Arista , Esq. Los inicios: Debido a que practicaban un nomadismo relativo, los guachichiles no dejaron rastros notorios de su cultura, salvo puntas de flecha y dibujos en cuevas que se localizan en varios lugares del municipio.

Entre y El municipio no escapa a los malos manejos de las elecciones en un estado anular las elecciones municipales 30 de octubre de por "defectuosos e irregulares", convocado a unas nuevas hasta el 24 de noviembre de Los tiempos modernos: Herederos: Br. A new poll by Bendixen and Associates found that 48 percent of Cuban exiles are sending money to their relatives in Cuba.

In , the American Muslim Council counted 40, Hispanic Muslims; current estimates range up to 60, Estimates of the total number of U. Muslims vary wildly, from about 1.

Annexation of Santo Domingo | Revolvy

He was the only Latino at the meetings of dozens, then hundreds, of blacks, he said. Now, he travels around the country lecturing Spanish-speaking audiences. Their food was delicious. They were friendly. I liked it there and I stayed," he said. After doing some research concerning the Canary Islands, I ran across some interesting information about the early settlements of the Canary Islands.

Their firs successes were on the islands in the Atlantic. In the Canary Islands they had to enslave the indigenous Berbers before turn the conquerors into landowners to grow vines and sell canary wine. The scheme was successful and Tenerife in particular attracted many land-hungry immigrants, but after half a century of Portuguese activity the Canaries wee transferred to Castile in one of the many peace treaties that tried to abate intra-Iberian rivalry. The following is from the book Protocolo de Juan Ruiz Berlanga "La poblacion de Tenerife en estos anos inmediatos a la anexion de la Corona de Castilla es consecuencia del complejo proceso de poblacion del complejo proceso de poblacion y procede del reino castellano.

A su lado conviven los del reino catalano-aragones, los portugueses, genoveses italianos e indigena. Para el desarrollo de la industria azucarera eran imprescindibles los portugueses por us conocimiento y technica de oficios relacionados con este producto. La mayoria de los artesanos eran originarios del reino de Portugal. The following names are from the following sources. Although there were more settlers, this list of Portuguese indicated were those active in selling, trading, carpentry, etc.

Note: some of these surnames were probably altered by the Spanish ez vs es suffix. Schmal In order to understand the Spanish conquest of the Americas, it would help to study Spain and its diverse and turbulent history. The evolution of the Iberian Peninsula from a Roman province to a German kingdom, thence to an Islamic nation, and finally to the Spanish "nation-state," generated the special conditions which gave rise to Spain's era of conquest.

Spain is a land famous for bullfights and for more than 1, beautiful castles and palaces. Isolated from the rest of Europe by the snow-capped Pyrenees Mountains, Spain's physical geography has given rise to Spain's own unique role in history. Spain has an area of , square miles and covers about four-fifths of the Iberian Peninsula which just out in the Atlantic Ocean.

Many kinds of people have conquered and lived in Spain, each group contributing to its traditions and customs. Starting in B. During the Second Punic War B. Roman legions eventually conquered the whole area which they called Hispania and stationed garrisons throughout the peninsula. Hispania became the first overseas empire of the Roman Empire. Although great Roman cities were developed and many Romans made the Iberian Peninsula their home, the natives of Hispania were rebellious and became a continuing source of trouble to the Romans. The Romans respected the Spaniards "at the least amenable of native races," and referred to them "as hard fighters, regardless of pain, and faithful to their leaders and their independence unto death.

Sometime around A. Two of these tribes, the Suevi from Germany and the Alans from southern Russia, conquered and settled Galicia and Portugal. In the meantime, King Gunderic led his Vandals down into central and southern Spain. The Vandals named their southerly kingdom Vandalusia, and this area is still called Andalusia today. Starting in , the German chiefdom Theodoric led a powerful invasion of Spain.

His tribe, the Visigoths, had spent the previous two centuries wandering from Scandinavia to the Black Sea, then westward into the Roman Empire. By the Fourth Century, they had been converted to Christianity and even possessed the Bible in their own tongue. At first allies of the Romans, they conquered the Alans and drove the Vandals across the Straits to North Africa in In the meantime, they confined the Suevians to Galicia in the northwestern corner of the peninsula.

In , the Visigoths renounced their alliance with the Romans and commenced with their own occupation of the peninsula. The western portion of the Roman Empire itself crumbled quickly and disintegrated in By , the Visigoths had conquered the entire peninsula. However, the kingdom began to founder and was overwhelmed by a new threat: the Moors of Africa. In , an Arab leaders, with a force of 12,, landed on the promontory that still bears his named Gebel-al-Tarik , Gibraltar , and advanced to meet Roderic, the Visigoth King. The Arabs were victorious and further victories in the next year cost Roderic his life and led, within seven years, to the total collapse of the Visigoth kingdom.

The Moslem Moors, who were more culturally advanced than most of the people of feudal Europe, developed a powerful Islamic civilization, unified initially, but later fragmented into smaller, warring kingdom. The Moors introduced an efficient irrigation system that is still used to today. The Moorish arch was introduced into Spanish architecture, and great Moorish cities were built at Cordoba, Toledo, and Valencia. The Basques. Of all Spain's provinces, the most culturally-unique group are the Basques, who still occupy the three Basque provinces and Navarre as well as parts of southwestern France.

The Basques, whose culture is believed to be thousands of years old, have guarded their ancient customs, traditions, and languages, even though they have played prominent roles in Spanish and American history. The Basques successfully resisted Romanization for two centuries and only then submitted to nominal occupation. Although they were converted to the Roman Catholic religion, they managed to fend off the Visigoth Kingdom but eventually acquiesced to Emperor Charlemagne of the Holy Roman Empire.

As subjects of the Spanish kingdom, the Basques have flourished, serving as shepherds, sailors, fisherman, miners, and metalworkers. The Reconquest. Starting with the defeat of the Muslims at the Battle of Covadonga in , the small Christian kingdoms of the Iberian Peninsula joined together in fighting the Moors. During the next four centuries, the Christian Reconquest of the Iberian Peninsula was, at best, erratic as the small kingdoms became embroiled in dynastic and territorial squabbles with one another. By , the Moorish kingdom in the peninsula consisted only of the southern state of Granada.

Castile and Aragon became the two most powerful kingdoms in Spain. After the death of Ferdinand's father, the King of Aragon, in , Castile and Aragon were united as a single Christian kingdom. In time, the other smaller kingdoms in the peninsula would be brought into the union. However, even today, Span is not an integrated country, but a confederation of regions, many of which have a desire for autonomy.

The sense of national identity has always been weak. For many centuries, the peninsula was called the Spains and was composed of separate and distinct realms: Aragon, Leon, Asturias, Catalonia, Valencia, Navarre, and Castile. However, all Spaniards were united in their resentment and defiance towards the Moorish occupiers. The determination of Ferdinand and Isabella to make Spain a wholly Catholic country led to the Spanish Inquisition in The Inquisition hunted down and imprisoned persons who were suspected of not believing Roman Catholic doctrine.

Jews and Moslems were treated most harshly. The Jews who did not convert were driven out of Spain, and in , Spanish troops defeated the Moors at Granada, evicting the Moslems entirely from the peninsula. The Era of Conquest. The liberation of the Iberian Peninsula leads us to a new era in Spanish history. The author Clifford A. Hauberg writes that "politically, Spain was possibly the best equipped of the budding European nations to acquire and control a colonial empire. For approximately six centuries it had been occupied with the expulsion of the non-Christian Moslems La Reconquista.

Hauberg, Spain " had built up the machinery to conquer, control, and exploit. This process resulted in the territorial unification of Spain as well as the development of an absolute form of government, culminating in the strong Machiavellian rule of Ferdinand and Isabella. In half a century, Spaniards gathered together an extensive empire in a large part of the Western Hemisphere.

But their ascendancy was not lasting. Wild storms and English guns wiped out a large part of the Armada. Of ships and 25, men, 66 ships and 15, men never returned. From this point, Spanish economic, political and military power declined steadily, weakened by war, revolts, religious persecutions, excessive taxation of industry, internal dissension, bankruptcy, and free-spending monarchs. The deadliest blow took place in March , when , French troops invaded Spain under the pretence of protecting the country's coastline from British invasion during the Napoleonic Wars. Emperor Napoleon I quickly defeated the Spanish on the battlefield and entered Madrid in triumph.

However, defeat on the battlefield did not translate into political occupation.

Meaning of "anexión" in the Spanish dictionary

The Spanish people, true to their tradition of defiance towards invaders, resisted the French occupation bitterly and carried on a very effective guerrilla warfare. In spite of the , French troops standing on Spanish soil, their guerrilla tactics never left the conquerors secure in their position. However, the French occupation sowed the seeds of destruction for the Spanish empire. During the Napoleonic interlude, many of the Creole colonial elites in the Spanish colonies in the Americas, tired of excessive taxation and severe restrictions on trade, made bids for both political and economic autonomy.

These acts of resistance soon evolved into full-fledged wars of liberation. By , Mexico, Chile, Paraguay, Uruguay, Colombia, and Venezuela had all revolted, depriving the mother country of her chief source of income. Upon his restoration, King Ferdinand attempted to rebuild his authority and started to re-conquer some of the rebellious colonies. But the wave of independence movements in the Western Hemisphere was gaining momentum and, by , had swept the entire Spanish Americas into rebellion and civil wars that would not end until Spain had lost its last continental possession.

Venezuela and Colombia gained independence in , followed by Mexico in By , Central and South America had disintegrated into eight free and independent states, shrinking Spain's once extensive and rich American empire in the New World to Cuba and Puerto Rico. In , these two colonial possessions would also be liberated. Sources: William C. Clifford A. Algarve Regt, in Cav.

Pedro Ruiz Andalucia - , Soldier, Cav. It is possible this person bought his commission and had no wartime service. Granville W. Hough may be contacted at gwhough earthlink. The Civil War income tax records are not only a valuable source of information for biographical, genealogical, and local history research but should also be considered when conducting regional and area studies of business and industry or quantitative studies of demographics during the s. They can be used in conjunction with census records, later tax records, and state and local records to document the growth of industries, shifting patterns of wealth, migration patterns, and even the incidence of women in the work force.

Sent by Johanna de Soto aking of America MOA is a digital library of primary sources in American social history from the antebellum period through reconstruction. The collection is particularly strong in the subject areas of education, psychology, American history, sociology, religion, and science and technology. The collection currently contains approximately 8, books and 50, journal articles with 19th century imprints. The project represents a major collaborative endeavor in preservation and electronic access to historical texts.

The Making of America collection is made up of images of the pages in the books and journals. When you find something you want to look at, you will see a scanned image of the actual pages of the 19th century volume. Making of America is growing and changing. Over five thousand new titles have been added, bringing Making of America to over two and a half million pages online. For a short time, the journals and books will be divided into two separate collections; you will not be able to search both at once.

Still, with help from them, she has created a digital family history of her parents' lives. The content includes more than 1, photographs accessible through easy pop-up menus, along with video clips and more. Ancestor of distant relative. Cousin female. Cousin male. First cousin female. First cousin male. Grandaunt or great-aunt. Granduncle or great-uncle. Half-blood brother one common parent. Half-blood sister one common parent. Step grandfather. Step grandmother. Step Father. Step Daughter. Originally begun in , its publishing history continued until when the last volume encompassing the letter "u" was published as a tribute to her late husband by Margarita Prendes Carraffa.

In , a reprinting of the earlier volumes began. The alphabet covered by the work goes from "a" through "u". The structure of the work provides an index in each volume. As the work progressed, supplemental names were added, breaking the alphabetical continuum. Without perusing all the volumes one could never be sure that an article may have been missed. This present automated index, compiles all the names mentioned in the respective indices and allows a comprehensive search of all volumes at one time.

One need only enter -- without accents -- the respective surname whether it be a compound surname or not and press "Submit. Visit the library of congress online and perform a search of the index. Clotilde P. Garcia, founder of SAGA. I did not get a single positive return. I do not doubt your good will, which keeps me informed of so much stuff, but I wonder how the diccionario was put together. Gracias por todo! Miguel Bedolla Bedollin aol. My search was for de los Santos, Santos, and Santoscoy I figured Santos would bring back some results I searched the index with five 5 of my ancestral names that I know are from Spain and got returns in 4 of them Johnny Marichalar Sanchez I don't read Spanish very well.

Not too bad a hit, I think.. These guys have access to books in Spanish on more names not found in the diccionario, also. I believe they reside in Spain. Southwestern U. Colin Powell, Secretary of State. In the second, at the Richard M. Nixon Presidential Library, Gonzales - uniform - was commissioned a second lieutenant in the U. Army, along with 10 other cadets in the university's ROTC program.

He was picked because he has the right blend of intelligence, physical fitness and leadership ability," said Major Christian Taddeo, ROTC commander and professor of military science. Step by step user friendly but quite sophisticated. Do check it out!! Give it a try, its free. Add your message. The estimate is that veterans are dying at a rate of 1, each day. Of the nearly 19,, living American war veterans, only interviews have been gathered. The project is collecting oral, video, and written histories. Each story is unique. Jerry Brenner, 82, donated 1, letters that he and his wife wrote during his two years in World War II - 80 letters in the month of July alone.

In the United States, the foundation expects to give approximately 40, computers to nearly 11, libraries in all 50 states by the end of The first stage of the grant to Mexico is a planning period, which McKinsey and Company in Mexico will facilitate for the National Council for Culture and Arts, the administrating agency for Mexico's libraries. This planning process will include an assessment, recommendations for needed resources, a completed grant application, and a detailed three-year implementation schedule.

The plan scheduled to be complete in October will take into account sustaining the technology and maintaining technical assistance. Bless our land with honorable industry, sound learning and pure manners. Save us from violence, discord and confusion; from pride and arrogance, and from every evil way.

Defend our liberties and fashion into one unite people the multitudes brought hither out of many kindred tongues. Imbue with the spirit of wisdom those to whom in Thy name we entrust the authority of government, that there may be justice and peace at home, and that, through obedience to Thy law, we may show forth Thy praise among the nations of the earth. In the time of prosperity fill our hearts with thankfulness; in the day of trouble suffer not our trust in Thee to fail; all of which we ask through Jesus Christ our Lord.

As published in the League of Latin American Citizens brochures,. History, assimilation was never about people of different racial, religious, and cultural backgrounds becoming homogeneous," said Gregory Rodriguez. Park wrote in , it is the process by which people of diverse backgrounds achieve a cultural solidarity sufficient to sustain a national existence. Hispanics found that by the second generation of U.

By the third generation, intermarriage rates for Latinos are extremely high. Fully one-third of third-generation Hispanic women are married to non-Hispanics. Hispanic , October , pg. Also included are perspectives from scholars, union and community activists, local officials, displaced workers, and more.

Sent by Johanna de Soto Women and Naturalization , ca. After considering that other Americans who expatriated themselves by swearing allegiance to another nation during World War I needed only to take the oath of allegiance in court to restore their U. Commissioner of Naturalization Raymond Crist suggested that Congress might create some similar provision for U.

Women of perhaps Mayflower ancestry, whose forbears fought through the Revolution, and whose family names bear honored and conspicuous places in our history, who are thoroughly American at heart, and who perhaps have never left these shores, but whose act in choosing alien husbands has forfeiture of American citizenship, bemoan the stipulation that such as they must sue for naturalization by the ordinary means. The That proportion is higher than at any other time since the census, when immigrants made up Immigration advocates said the overall percentage of foreign-born who have become citizens — One big shift is in immigrants' birthplaces.

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For the first time, those born in Latin America make up more than half of immigrants in the United States, at If you would like to receive this flyer, Email Heritage Books, Inc. The book number is S Links to specific categories from their main website are in place. In addition to current political and social issues, special interesting features can be found in every update.

The June issue had information on different styles of Latin dances. The site resembles latinola. Latino enclaves. Disney official said they thought the work was being done in factories and not in homes, just miles from Disneyland. So far, local workers have received back wages. People would complain, but they would do it because they need to. In this country you have to work. Some say workers, many of them undocumented immigrants, are afraid of contacting the state.

It is celebrated with popular and traditional entertainment, cultural activities, historic displays, food, artisan exhibits and more. It may have had a magnitude of 7. The new fault appears to be active, but it is slow-moving one unlikely to generate a major earthquake more often than, say, every 2, years. Noticias para Los Californianos, Vol. If you make a commitment to attend the society sessions on Wednesday and report back to your nonprofit society you might be able to write off the costs for one day of the conference as a donation to that society on your itemized income tax return.

Not only the one day conference fee would be deductible, you can also take deductions for transportation, lodging if you live a reasonable distance away and per diem rates for food if you live outside the county. You could even extend your deduction by manning your societies booth or working as a conference volunteer on other days of the conference. Sent by Peter E. She expressed concern that the improper term had become so common that, in the future, residents of Baja California might become know as "Bajos". After translating these comments to English, I explained that the term "Baja" was not only offensive to Baja Californians similar to "Frisco" among San Franciscans but also was simply grammatically incorrect.

As an adjective, "Baja" cannont be used as a noun, and is improper, even if the speaker does not concern himself with offending Baja Californians. During the entire trip we discussed our concerns over the impact of the soon to be completed paved highway upon historical sites, problems of vandalism, treasure hunting, graffitti, theft, etc. On exiting we found the chauffeur carving his initials into the facade of the church! This groundbreaking collection offers another perspective: Early California seen through the eyes of those who explored it, colonized it, and settled it in the age before the gold rush.

Conflicts between missionaries and soldiers, Indians and non-Indians, Hispanic settlers and Anglo newcomers, friends and neighbors, spill out of the pages, bringing the ferment of daily life into sharp focus. Here we find not sleepy towns, quaint missions, or comic opera military outposts; rather an ever-shifting world of struggle and opportunity, aspiration and tragedy, pride and loss.

The first-person accounts are tied together with extensive introductions and commentaries by two well-known scholars. Together the selections and commentaries give us an intimate portrait as well as a broad context, placing the exploration and settlement of Alta California within the history of Baja California and the conquest of the New World. This ambitious and accessible book, further amplified by more than thirty illustrations, maps, and paintings, will influence greatly how we envision the history and legacy of Hispanic California and is sure to become the cornerstone for a new generation of early California studies.

Friday, April 19, California State Deaths are released for public use. You will be amazed at how much has been gathered, such as all the Mexican land grant information, by county. A core component of the California Digital Library, the Online Archive of California OAC is a digital information resource that facilitates and provides access to materials such as manuscripts, photographs, and works of art held in libraries, museums, archives, and other institutions across California.

The OAC is available to a broad spectrum of users -students, teachers, and researchers of all levels. Through the OAC, all have access to information previously available only to scholars who traveled to collection sites. The OAC includes a single, searchable database of "finding aids" to primary sources and their digital facsimiles. Primary sources include letters, diaries, manuscripts, legal and financial records, photographs and other pictorial items, maps, architectural and engineering records, artwork, scientific logbooks, electronic records, sound recordings, oral histories artifacts and ephemera.

Certainly this was true for me as a child when staying with my Grandmother Bernal. The closet in an upstairs bedroom was a favorite spot to explore as was the drawer with all of her father's ribbons and medals. Possibly, though, my favorite objects were the old Mexican style mortar and pestle and metate. Photographs of both the schools and some students from those schools are included in this site. Go to for a listing of the schools and time periods covered. Hopefully this will be expanded. Who Perished? The roster of names is compiled from newspapers of those persons who died as a direct result of injuries received either at the time of the earthquake and fire, or during the latter half of April Compiled by Gladys Hansen, this list will be of particular assistance to history buffs and family geneologists who are seeking lost relatives last heard from in San Francisco on April 18, The names and addresses have been verified, as far as possible, by checking each name in the San Francisco City Directory.

Included is the name of the newspaper and date in which that individual's name was included. Jose Antonio Calzada holds the distinction of being the only Cuban-born Franciscan missionary to serve in California. His life and struggles as a missionary typify that of all early Spanish colonizers. His dual roles, settler and priest, provide testimony of the spirit and zeal of most Franciscan missionaries on the Northern Borderlands frontier.

Calzada was born on the 24th of November in the city of Trinidad located on the south-central portion of Cuba. His parents where Jose Calzada and Micaela de Cala.

He obtained a transfer to the College of San Fernando in Mexico City where he was ordained into the priesthood on the 18th of December The mids marked the period of Spain's great push to colonize "Alta" or Upper California because of the threat posed by the Russians in northern California. Many of the new priests ordained at the College of San Fernando were assigned to the new California missions founded by Fr.

Junipero Serra. In October , Fr. Calzada along with Frs. Jose Senan and Diego Garcia arrived in Monterey to begin their mission. At the same time, the book critically examines the construction of categories and discourses of colonialism, and questions the ideological underpinnings of the source material required to address such a vast issue. Accordingly, the book strikes a balance between theoretical, methodological and empirical issues, integrated to a lesser or greater extent in most of the chapters.

Skip to main content Skip to table of contents. Advertisement Hide. Archaeologies of Early Modern Spanish Colonialism. Front Matter Pages i-xii. Pages Front Matter Pages